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In memory of the residents of Norilsk, who made an unbearable contribution to the victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.|
Throughout the history of the USSR, 12,745 people were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Norilsk residents were among them.
Not many people know that 13 Heroes of the Soviet Union in different years lived and worked in Norilsk. Some of them linked their fates with the Arctic after the end of the war, having come here to live and work in the difficult post-war years.
At the city cemetery Golikovo there is a noticeable grave - three obelisks in one fence. Here lie the Heroes of the Soviet Union, whose life has always remained connected with Norilsk: Semyon Artemyevich Uganin, Dmitry Andreevich Kovalchuk, Vasily Innokentievich Davydov.
In the city archive of Norilsk the personal documents of the heroes of the Norilsk people are carefully kept. As Yevgenia Sidoruk, chief specialist of the archive, said, Vasily Davydov received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union on May 8, 1945 for the capture of the Reichstag:
- Captain Davydov, at the head of his battalion of the 647th regiment of the 150th Rifle Idrinsky Order of Kutuzov of the II degree division, breaking the fierce resistance of the enemy, went to the Friedlanderstrom canal on April 17, 1945. Davydov personally supervised the crossing. Thanks to the excellent training of personnel, the selfless actions of soldiers and officers, several assault platoons on improvised means under hurricane fire reached the opposite bank of the channel and broke into the enemy trench. As a result of the actions of the assault groups of Davydov's battalion, a large defense center Kunensdorf, prepared by the Germans for a long siege, was captured. On the night of April 29, conducting fierce battles for every meter, Davydov crossed the Spree River and by 5 am on April 30 occupied Himmler's office. By 9 am, his battalion had taken the starting line before the assault on the Reichstag. At 14:25, two rifle companies and a group of scouts under the personal leadership of Captain Davydov broke into the Reichstag building and hoisted the Victory Banner.
A little earlier, on March 24, 1945, Captain Dmitry Kovalchuk became the Hero of the Soviet Union. Together with his soldiers, on the night of December 4-5, 1944, when crossing the Danube in the area between the settlements of Chop and Martonvarshar (Hungary), under enemy fire, he was the first to reach the right bank of the river. Within 24 hours they fought off 16 furious tank counterattacks, hitting the enemy with light machine gun fire. And they not only held the occupied bridgehead on the right bank of the Danube, but also expanded it, while the enemy suffered heavy losses.
Until the last bullet
As it is written in the award list of senior sergeant Semyon Uganin, “… during the offensive battles since March 5, 1944, he showed exceptional courage. In the area of the village of Rubaty Most, when they reached the place, he raised his crew to attack, the first to break into the enemy trenches, stabbed four Fritzes with a bayonet. Pursuing the enemy, Comrade. Uganin killed three more Fritzes. When crossing the Dniester River on March 28, 1944, Comrade. Uganin showed exceptional courage with his calculation - he crossed with the expectation to the right bank and, meeting with the enemy, opened a hurricane of mortar fire. Then, shouting "Hurray!" raised his crew to attack and forced the Germans to retreat, leaving their soldiers on the battlefield. March 30, 1944, when attacking the village of Kapiotany, Comrade. Uganin was all the time with his crew in the infantry battle formations, acting boldly and skillfully. Cut off from his units, he ordered the crew to fight to the last bullet. All attempts of the Germans to capture the daredevils did not lead to anything. Having exhausted the Germans, Uganin raised his crew and with a bayonet and butt made his way to his own. "
The title of Hero of the Soviet Union with the presentation of the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal to Semyon Uganin was awarded on September 13, 1944.
June 1941 he met the settlement of Norilsk in labor worries. In May, the foundation was laid for the first pipe of the Big Metallurgical (now Nickel) Plant. On June 15, the first metal structures of the building of the Combined Heat and Power Plant (CHP) were installed. By this time, the Small Metallurgical Plant, the Mechanical Plant, the sintering and experimental concentrating factories, three coal and three ore adits, a chemical laboratory, the Dudinka-Norilsk-Valek railway, and an airport were already operating.
Trofim Yakovlevich Garmash (collector of the history of the city and the combine, who created a long-term work "Historical, geographical and sociological information about Taimyr, Norilsk and the combine") in his manuscript "The Combine's War History", kept in the library fund of the city archive, writes about the first day of the war:
“It was a normal day off ... Sunday morning in June. At the stadium, they played football. Many Norilsk residents had a rest in the tundra on Valka. But the plant worked. The chimneys of factories were smoking.
On Oktyabrskaya Street, in the wooden two-story building of the plant's management, on the occasion of the weekend it was quiet and empty, only A.I. was on duty at the switchboard. Polyakov. There are three red lights on the dashboard in front of him: they lit up at the call of the head of the plant A.A. Panyukov, chief engineer V.S. Zverev and the head of the construction department N.V. Volokhov.
At four thirty minutes Norilsk time, Volokhov's light came on. Polyakov picked up the phone. Volokhov ordered:
- Summon all heads of enterprises, workshops, construction sites and other departments to the head of the plant, regardless of where they are now. If you don't find anyone, report it to me.
For three hours Polyakov called, called, sent to look, found. "
At an emergency meeting, it became known that the war had begun. The first "military" order of A. Panyukov on the Norilsk Combine and the NKVD camp of the USSR No. 309 read:
“1. From this date, until further notice, to stop the dismissal on the next vacation with the departure from Norilsk of the workers of the plant and the camp.
2. In special cases, the next leave with departure to provide only with my permission.
3. To the head of the personnel department, Comrade Astakhov:
- to persons who have been granted regular leave with departure from Norilsk and who are currently in Norilsk, cancel the granted leave and invite these persons to immediately start work;
- all employees of the plant and camp who are on regular leave outside Norilsk should be immediately returned from their vacations by telegraphic call. "
The second order of June 22, 1941 established the position of a responsible officer on duty at the Norilsk Combine and the NKVD camp. According to the instructions, these persons (the list of names was attached) were subordinate only to the head of the plant, and if necessary, they could make decisions on their own behalf. Their powers included control over everything that happened on the territory of the camp and production facilities, summoning managers to these facilities, ensuring the receipt and delivery of urgent service telegrams and radiograms. The duty officer started work from 7 pm to 9 am. For efficiency, he was provided with a personal courier and a passenger car.
On June 24, the entire personnel of the militarized guard of the camp were transferred to martial law. From that day on, the Regulations of the disciplinary service of the Red Army, published in 1940, were applied to the "Vokhrovtsy"; dismissals and vacations were prohibited.
Already in the first days of the war, volunteers began to bring statements to the Norilsk military commissar with requests to send them to the front. The statements were accepted, and in the meantime they were waiting for explanations from Moscow, because now it was clear that the tasks of the Norilsk Combine for the speedy production of marketable nickel and copper were not just a priority. They became vital for the country - the Norilsk metal, which is part of the tank armor, was necessary for the front. In the context of the special, “island” situation of Norilsk, extreme climatic conditions and impending wartime difficulties, it became necessary to mobilize all the internal resources of the plant. The use of all resources, without exception, was to be aimed at preparing a wide front for the further construction of the plant. And this is in the face of a shortage of the essentials! There was a shortage of paper, cement, electricity, fuel, food and workwear. The plant's management urged to work in conditions of the strictest economy. The utilities department had to submit a plan for the consumption of fuel, electricity and water. We saved on everything. So, in order No. 313 of June 25, 1941, all heads of departments, directorates and subdivisions of the combine and the camp were ordered to immediately take "the most decisive measures to impose a strict regime of economy in spending paper on clerical needs." Accounting and finance departments (probably the most "paper-intensive" in the course of their activities) were asked to revise all forms of accounting and statistical reporting, as well as the form nkov in order to keep paper waste to a minimum. By a separate order dated June 24, the heads of the Technical Supply Department of the combine, woodworking plant, and the heads of all construction workshops had to hand over all their wood waste to special warehouses of the communal services. The saved shingles and chips were sold to the population at strictly fixed prices. At the end of September 1941, on the eve of the onset of winter and the polar night, order No. 498 "On the strictest economy in the use of electric lamps" came into force. Lamps were released strictly according to the order, the use of lamps with a capacity of more than 75 watts was prohibited in the residential premises of the village and the camp (they were withdrawn to illuminate production facilities), lighting of any objects during daylight hours and outside of working hours was prohibited. the construction of a CHPP, the Big Metallurgical Plant (BMZ), which was to be completed in the shortest possible time. Concreting of the BMZ foundation began in April 1940. The work was carried out around the clock. There was a catastrophic shortage of building materials, especially cement. In order to significantly reduce losses, it was prohibited to use cement for all types of construction work (namely, laying walls, plastering, making cinder blocks), where it was possible to use any other binding materials. By the end of December, cement production began on the basis of limestone from the local Daldykan deposit. In the fall of 1941, in order to "actually identify values in all divisions of the plant ... as well as to identify excess stocks in order to mobilize internal resources", a complete inventory of all inventory items, material goods in warehouses and in operation, semi-finished products and finished products, as well as cash and settlements of all types. All funds and materials were used to speed up industrial construction. At the same time, the "Temporary instruction on the design of industrial enterprises in wartime" was approved, which said: "Allow deviations from sanitary, fire-prevention and other norms ... Do not arrange asphalt sidewalks .... Exclude from construction plans: schools, clubs, cinemas and other cultural and welfare institutions ... Design new workshops without outbuildings ... Refuse to plaster walls and cover them with oil paint ... Joiner's products are allowed not to be painted ... ". Of course, this instruction was extraordinary. The Norilsk people abandoned everything without which they could somehow do without. Ideological work was carried out among the population. By order of July 25, an air defense headquarters was created in the village of Norilsk, in all departments, directorates, workshops and subdivisions, compulsory training of workers and employees was introduced according to a 28-hour program of air and chemical defense. There were also formed teams of medical and sanitary and even veterinary (horse-drawn transport was the main one - the horses were taken care of!). In connection with the martial law, the inhabitants of Norilsk (which, by the way, was already a regime object) were called to be especially vigilant. In July, by order of A.A. Panyukov, an inspection was made of the storage of business papers in the building of the main office of the plant. The inspection established that the drawers of the tables, where the business papers were kept, were opened, the deputy head of the Construction Department left the key in a conspicuous place, and its head, Comrade M. "bothered not to close the box where the secret correspondence was kept." The perpetrators received a severe reprimand, and the plant manager, Comrade. Beyer was instructed to regularly monitor all the offices. June 22 was the last day off for the prisoners of the Norilsk camp. The next Sunday, June 29, was declared a working day for all the c / c and part of the civilian employees, whose work was related to the work of the c / c. A 12-hour working day was established for the prisoners (except for those who worked underground and in harmful conditions), and the working day for civilians was also increased. There will be many such orders during the war years. People worked, overfulfilling the norm, because they knew that their work was necessary for the Motherland.
From the "Military were the plant" T.Ya. Garmash:
“Late in the evening of the second day of the war, Zverev and the chief of the political affairs officer Kozlovsky entered the office of the plant chief. We sat down at the table opposite Panyukov and Zverev said:
- Write it down, Alexander Alekseevich! There were no those who did not fulfill the norms. Many have exceeded it. There are many. I won't tell you all of them, - the lists are from the heads of the shops. In the meantime, write down: at the mine near Karlyukov, drillers Maksimenko, Bogaev, Gerasimovich and Murygin gave two rates each. And at the mechanical repair shop, Goncharov and Novikov, on iron casting, were given three and a half norms each. They hung a slogan over the entire wall: "Let's fill the fascist reptile with metal!"
No one knew then that the war was not for several months, and not even for a year, but for four long years. They didn’t know, but they felt what a new and heavy responsibility the plant was bearing for the fulfillment of wartime plans.
From the order of A. Panyukov No. 404 dated August 15, 1941: "On preparation for work in the autumn-winter period of 1941-42":
“Everything that the Combine has for this period - manpower, electric thermal energy, materials, equipment and transport should be used with maximum effect and be subordinated to the solution of the main immediate tasks of the Combine - ensuring the timely and early commissioning of the main launch facilities: the complex of workshops BMZ and MMZ , coking plant, thermal power plant; pumping station No. 2 and a water conduit, as well as structures and enterprises with them.
This was the first Norilsk military summer. Ahead are years of hardship, hard work, but most importantly - labor exploits and resilience of the Norilsk people (campers and civilians - it hardly matters), who were building a city and a combine on the permafrost ...