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RP76P
Truzheniki tyla

Tyumenskaya oblast

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CITY-HOSPITAL

The formation of evacuation hospitals began to take place in Tyumen on June 25, 1941 – already on the third day after the start of the war. Initially, only three hospitals were organized in the city – Nos. 1498, 1499, 1500, each of which housed 200 beds.

The sorting hospital was located in the building of the modern University of Architecture and Civil Engineering.

In August 1941, after the first wounded soldiers arrived in Tyumen, two more hospitals were organized in the city – surgical and therapeutic No. 2475, located in the 21st school on the street.Khokhryakov, and No. 3518, which was placed outside the city – in the Recreation House named after him.Olovyannikov.

In October-December 1941, with the approach of the fighting to Moscow, the number of wounded increased dramatically. In this regard, several more hospitals were opened in Tyumen. Each of them specialized in the nature of injuries: therapeutic, surgical, traumatological, neuropsychiatric, infectious, and others.

In total, during the war years, 11 hospitals with 6 thousand beds were located on the territory of Tyumen, which occupied 26 city buildings. On many houses of old Tyumen and now you can see commemorative plaques indicating that here in 1941-1945 was located the hospital N.

DECLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS: According to the Red Cross, the health authorities have organized 26 hospitals (13 in the Ural and 13 in the Siberian military districts). Trains with patients arrived from Kharkiv, Chernihiv, Kuban and other places. More than 60 doctors worked in Tyumen hospitals. The wounded and maimed were taught the shoemaking trade, the accounting profession, so that people could earn a living, and not be a burden.

More than sixty doctors, hundreds of paramedics and nurses worked in Tyumen hospitals. Among them, there were many real professionals in their field. For example, Pavel Ivanovich Sazonov was known as a virtuoso surgeon. More than 5,000 operations during the war years were carried out under his leadership. Almost half of them are his personal ones.

The comprehensive assistance of the public to the health authorities, the high patriotism, enthusiasm and great efficiency of all medical personnel largely contributed to the fact that 72.3 percent of the wounded and 90 percent of the sick soldiers returned to combat formation, continued the fight against the Nazi invaders.

Since 1943, the hospitals began to gradually wind down their work and relocate closer to the front line, which gradually moved to the west. By the end of 1944, the last wounded and hospitals left the city.

"WHITE WALTZ" OF TYUMEN HOSPITALS

"PEOPLE IN WHITE COATS, I WANT TO BOW LOW TO YOU!»

Already in the first year of the Great Patriotic War in Tyumen, Ishim, Yalutorovsk, Zavodoukovsk, Golyshmanovo, it was planned to deploy about 30 hospitals for 10 thousand beds for wounded patients. Rabolini — so called health workers fighters, taken from the front of a cure in Siberia.

There is a song about a nurse who has been "whirled around by a frontline blizzard" since the school prom, which is amazing in its emotional impact. No matter how many times I listened to her, but in the words "And the soldier said that he was lying without legs:" We will dance with you, sister, " I can not hold back the tears. From within, from the heart, comes-breaks through the awareness of the degree of soldier's courage, willpower, endurance. And the degree of mercy, patience, faith, and hope that the people in white coats showed to the wounded.

One more problem becomes obvious, over the solution of which the head of the Tyumen City Health Department, Maria Popova, had to break her head: where to get the equipment necessary for equipping evacuation hospitals in the shortest possible time? The conditions of the task became much more complicated with the opening in Tyumen (already in August 1941) of the e/g "second queues" - No. 2475 and No. 3318.

Tyumen doctors: everything for the front!

Evacuation hospitals-islands of salvation

In the first days of the war, hundreds of medical workers went to the front: doctors, paramedics, pharmacists, nurses and orderlies. In September 1941, the 368th Red Banner Pecheneg Rifle Division was formed in Tyumen. It included the 461st separate Medical Battalion.

Not only on the battlefields, victory over the enemy was ensured, but also in the rear. A large number of industrial enterprises, educational institutions, orphanages, and hospitals were evacuated to the Tyumen region. All were sheltered by the Tyumen land, fed and warmed.

In the first months of the war, 23 evacuation hospitals were formed in Tyumen, Ishim, Yalutorovsk and Zavodoukovsk, which were provided with the best buildings. To work in them, they attracted qualified specialists who provided medical care to 70 thousand soldiers.

Preparations for the reception of the wounded were proceeding rapidly. The local population willingly helped the hospital staff: they put the rooms in order, brought flowers and paintings from the house, and arranged furniture.

In Tyumen, first of all, hospitals 1498, 1500, 2475 were deployed. By the autumn of 1941, evacuation hospitals from Kharkiv, Chernihiv, and Kuban began to arrive. But there were not enough rooms for all of them, so some of them were sent further to the East. Doctors, staying in the system of people's Commissariat, was considered to be mobilized to work in the hospital and followed for relocation. From the evacuation hospital, the soldiers returned to the troops or, in case of unfitness for continuing service, were demobilized.

In total, during the war years, 11 hospitals with 6 thousand beds in 26 buildings were deployed in Tyumen. Each of the hospitals specialized in the nature of injuries: therapeutic, surgical, traumatological, neuropsychiatric, infectious, and others. They employed more than sixty doctors, hundreds of paramedics and nurses.

To return to the combat system

The work of the hospital staff had its own difficulties: there was not enough equipment, medicines, food; there was also a problem of sanitary transport. As a rule, the buildings were little adapted for the treatment of the wounded. And when fully loaded, such a re-compaction was created that it was necessary to fill the canteens, red corners, clubs, and corridors with beds. Medical personnel had to prepare firewood, carry water, wash the floors, and take care of the wounded. It is worth adding that the recovering soldiers, having seen all the hardships of the medical staff, organized shifts. During this" occupational therapy", they chopped firewood, peeled vegetables, and cleaned the yard.

Hospitals were provided with soft equipment for 2.5-3 shifts. There were not enough bandages, soap, kerosene, fodder. Due to the lack of writing paper, medical records were often kept on scraps of paper bags, newspapers, pages of books and magazines, and often with a solution of potassium permanganate due to the lack of chemical ink.

Party, Soviet, trade union and public organizations provided comprehensive assistance to the hospitals. Tyumen residents handed over milk, meat, fish, cereals, potatoes and other products to improve the diet of the wounded for the speedy recovery of their strength.

At the hospitals, workshops were created to train disabled people in new professions. So, at the hospital 1500 courses of accountants, masters of watchmaking and shoemaking were organized.

The comprehensive assistance of the public to the health authorities, the high patriotism, enthusiasm and great efficiency of all medical personnel largely contributed to the fact that 72.3 percent of the wounded and 90 percent of the sick soldiers returned to combat formation, continued the fight against the Nazi invaders.

Withstood the test of war

In Tyumen hospitals worked best doctors: Nicholas Sushkov, Pavel Sazonov, Faith Utrobina, Michael Panaschenko and many others.

Nikolai Sushkov had to operate not only in the hospital 1500, but also in other hospitals. One day, a train arrived with the wounded, among them a 28-year-old soldier, who had to remove a fragment from the carotid artery. This operation was performed by Nikolai Vasilyevich. The fighter survived and after recovery he was sent to the unit. When Professor Fersman arrived from Novosibirsk, he said that out of a thousand patients who have undergone such an operation, only one remains alive. For his selfless work during the war, Nikolai Sushkov was awarded the Order of the Red Star.

Pavel Sazonov showed medical initiative, applying his own modifications of Pirogov's bone-plastic surgery in the surgical treatment of wounded in the foot. He also successfully operated on arterial aneurysms, removed foreign bodies from the skull cavity and chest.

During the difficult war years, medical workers of the Tyumen region successfully coped with the tasks assigned to them: they carried out preventive measures to prevent the occurrence and development of epidemics, treated wounded and sick soldiers in hospitals.

No matter where the medical workers were, every single one of them stood the test of the war with honor. Like everyone else, they worked under the motto: "Everything for the front, everything for victory" and honestly fulfilled their duty to the Fatherland.

Linchuk, Olga. Tyumen doctors: everything for the front! [Text] / O. Linchuk // Tyumen region today. - 2012. - May 11. - p. 13.