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Nachalo razgroma nemcev pod Stalingradom

Voronezhskaya oblast


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The Great Patriotic War is a special page of military valor in the history of our land. Such huge sacrifices have never been made by our land on the altar of Russian victories. The enemy was numerous, strong, and treacherous. For the first time since the Crimean raids, the enemy came to our land, ravaged villages and cities.

The summer offensive of the German fascist troops in 1942 complicated the situation on all fronts. The Red Army was forced to retreat to the banks of the Don and Volga. In the plans of the Nazi command, special importance was attached to the breakthrough in the Voronezh direction. It was here, in the Middle Don region, that a strong group of troops was additionally transferred by the enemy — the 2nd Infantry and 4th Panzer German armies, the 2nd Hungarian, and the 3rd Italian armies. They were supported by the 4th Air Fleet of Nazi Germany.

On June 28, 1942, the Fascist troops-the army group " Weihs "under the command of Colonel-General von Weihs and the 6th Field Army, reinforced by the 40th Tank Corps and formations of the

1st Air Fleet-began an offensive operation in the Voronezh direction under the code name" Blau " (Blue).

Despite the stubborn resistance of the Soviet troops of the Bryansk and South-Western fronts, the heroism of soldiers and officers of the enemy, with significant superiority in manpower and equipment broke our defensive positions and rushed to don the Germans hoped to seize the Voronezh, and then, turning sharply to the South, to reach the area of Sochi city Freedom (now Nizhniy Novgorod), capturing a large railway junction.

On July 6, the advanced units of the fascist troops entered the right-bank zone of the Liskinsky district. On the way of the fascists, who were drunk from temporary successes, the formations of our 6th army stood in the way. Directly on the Liskinsky direction was formed in Krasnoyarsk Krai 309-I infantry division, on the left, in the area of Wind - Briar, placed 1st fighter and 21st fighter rifle division named for V. I. Chapayev and other units of the 40th army.

Attaching great importance to the Voronezh direction, the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command decides to create the Voronezh Front from 7.07.1942. The main tasks of his troops were defined in order No. 0027 of July 18, 1942: "The enemy is exerting frantic efforts to break through the Don into the interior of our country. The fight for the Don is now our task. The Don must become inaccessible to the enemy. At its shores, we must break its backbone, make the enemy bleed to death. It is necessary to clear the left bank of the Don from the infiltrated fascists."

In the Liskin direction of the Voronezh Front, the main combat mission was performed by the 309th Rifle Division. In the period from December 10, 1941 to July 1, 1942, it was re-formed and urgently transferred to the west, to the Voronezh Front. On July 7, 1942, the 309th Division arrived at the Ikorets railway station and immediately received a combat mission - to take up defense on the front section along the left bank of the Don from the city of Svoboda to the village of Nikolaevka inclusive (45 km). In total, the division had 12512 personnel.

Order No. 2 of 9.07.42. read: "I order: 1. Units of the division take the defense line on the eastern bank of the Don and do not allow the enemy to enter the left bank.

Conduct continuous reconnaissance: to the commander of the 957th SP-High, Davydovka, Staraya Pokrovka, Korotoyak. To the commander of the 959th SP-Liski, Krinitsa, Ostrogozhsk. To the commander of 955 sp-Shchuchye, Krutets.

Conduct permanent work on the equipment of the positions." (TsAMO, foundation 334, O. 5252, d. 3, l 1).

Soldiers of the 309th Rifle Division pre-empted enemy attacks on the right bank of the Don near the village of Zaluzhny. Here, in the coastal I floodplain, on July 5-6, the Krasnoyarsk Siberians were baptized. In their first battle with superior enemy forces, they destroyed up to 600 enemy soldiers and officers.

The 219th Rifle Division was formed in Bashkiria. On 4 July 1942, she arrived at Buturlinovka. The 219th SD, as well as its "neighbors" on the right, received a twofold task - to ensure the retreat of the retreating units of the 21st Army and the 3rd Guards Cavalry Corps and to prevent the enemy from crossing the Don. Carrying out this task, the 219th SD immediately captured a bridgehead on the right bank of the Don, in the area of the Cradle, and held it for 7 months. It was a baptism of fire for the division's warriors. After crossing the Don in the Priyar area, the 710th Regiment moved out in the direction of the Svoboda farm and surrounded the 13th Hungarian Infantry Regiment. The prisoners alone were taken under the Cradle of 1,000 soldiers and officers. The rest of the 219th Division operated in the Babka area, where the 16th and 54th infantry regiments were destroyed, and 3,000 Magyars were captured.

When the Fascists occupied Perezzhee and Shchuchye, the Nazis crossed the Don River in the area of the village of Nizhny Ikorets with the forces of up to a battalion. The forces of the 309th SD enemy landing was destroyed, only a few enemies managed to escape from the Lower Ikorets.

By August 1942, there was a relative lull at the front. Our command decided to make the defense of the Middle Don so active as to prevent the transfer of enemy forces to Stalingrad.

On the night of August 7, 1942, the 6th company of the 955th Rifle Regiment under the command of Captain Polyakov conducted a reconnaissance of the enemy's defense. Having secretly penetrated into Shchuchye, she defeated the headquarters of the 254th German Infantry Regiment with a surprise attack. 12 officers were killed. Simultaneously with these actions, Senior Sergeant Dzhigirei with a group of fighters entered the farm Perezzhee, caused panic there and captured one prisoner. By morning, the 6th company was in place, Captain Polyakov reported to the chief of staff of the

regiment data on the location of the defense line and the number of the enemy.

Taking into account the updated intelligence, the commander Afanasyev gave the order:

The commander of the 2nd battalion 959 SP Sysoev — seize the height 160,7.

The commander of the 3rd battalion 955 SP Shevchuk - to seize the village of Pike.

The training battalion together with the 3rd battalion of the 259th joint venture of Captain Kuzmenko to seize the farm Perezzhee and the height of 1,3.

On the night of August 9, units of the 309th SD, which were not detected by the enemy, took up their initial position in the forests adjacent to the left bank of the Don River, and suddenly attacked the enemy. Within a few minutes of the bayonet charge, up to two enemy battalions were destroyed. The rest of the enemy retreated in panic. In pursuit of the retreating division 309th SD raided the village village, then his left flank drove the enemy from the village Praesieo and took up a position in the form of a horseshoe from Paratunsky the bend of the don river near the height 175,4 for mucenski hill 2 km from the village and back to the banks of the don in range lake Peskovatskoe. This piece of Russian land was destined to go down in history under the name "Mucenski foothold."

The 1st and 2nd battalions of the 959th Rifle Regiment and other special forces were sent to reinforce the attackers, who significantly increased the combat power of the attackers and helped equip the occupied positions.

During the next 5 days, the enemy tried to regain the lost positions, threw new reserves into the battle, but all the enemy's counterattacks were repulsed. In the battles for the Shchuchensky bridgehead, the 54th Infantry division, two reserve battalions were destroyed, 200 prisoners were captured, 36 machine guns, two batteries of 75 mm guns, 23 machine guns, warehouses, a large number of horses and wagons.

To further strengthen the bridgehead, the forces were regrouped. When summing up the results of the operation, Commander Kharitonov named the 309th Division's intelligence unit as the best unit. Capture Sochinskogo springboard was highly appreciated by the Soviet command. Many Siberian soldiers were awarded orders and medals. (TsAMO, foundation 1617, op. 1, d. 1).

21 December 1942 the Supreme command plan was approved Ostrogozhsk-Rossosh operation. Stalin personally "RF" instructed the commander of the Voronezh front, Lieutenant — General F. I. Golikov about the preparation and conduct of the offensive front to the defeat of Nazi troops between Voronezh and Kantemirovka and the release of enemy of the railway Liski - Kantemirovka.

3 through January 7, 1943 to check on the troops Storozhevsky and Mucenski springboard left the command of the Deputy people's Commissar of defense Marshal Zhukov, and the chief of the General staff Colonel-General A. V. Vasilevskiy for further reconnaissance troops. The plan called for a simultaneous concentration of the 40th Army's attack from the Storozhevsky bridgehead and a counterattack to encircle the 3rd Panzer Army, reinforced by infantry divisions. On January 13, 1943, the Soviet offensive began along the entire front line in accordance with the plan of the Ostrogozhsko-Rossoshanskaya operation.

On January 14, after a powerful artillery preparation, the offensive began from the Shchuchensky bridgehead. The enemy's resistance was broken by the powerful tank attack of the tank brigades and the selfless onslaught of the infantry of the 309th and 219th Rifle divisions.

On the enemy side there were 260 thousand soldiers and officers, 300 tanks, 900 guns, 300 aircraft; 210 thousand soldiers and officers, 3155 guns and mortars, 797 tanks, 208 aircraft. In the fierce battles in the Ostrogozhsko-Rossoshanskaya operation, the enemy lost 123 thousand killed and wounded, 71 thousand surrendered. Huge trophies were taken: weapons, ammunition, a lot of military equipment. During the Ostrogozhsko-Rossoshanskaya operation, the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to 50 Soviet soldiers.

The title "Honorary Citizen of the village of Shchuchy" was awarded to famous generals: commander of the Voronezh Front

General F. I. Golikov and the commander of the artillery regiment A.V. Chapaev, the son of the legendary commander.