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Suvorovcam Velikoy Otechestvennoy Voyny

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During the Great Patriotic War, the severe necessity forced the country's leadership to rely on the patriotic consciousness of the people, to turn to the glorious military history of Russia. Russian Russian state awards were established, bearing the names of the great Russian generals and naval commanders, and the army introduced shoulder straps and military ranks similar to those of the old Russian army. There was also a need to create educational institutions on the model of cadet corps. Suvorov military schools in the Soviet Union were created in the year of a radical change in the Great Patriotic War. The decision to create them was made by the Soviet government when, in August 1943, the first victory salute thundered in the sky over Moscow in honor of the completion of the defeat of the German fascist troops on the Kursk Bulge. The initiator of their creation was Lieutenant-General Alexey Ignatiev, who addressed a letter to I. V. Stalin on April 17, 1943: he proposed, in the form of experience, to create one cadet corps in Moscow. Stalin made 2 amendments: the schools were called Suvorov schools; and 9 schools were created at once.

On August 21, 1943, salutes were fired over Moscow in honor of the victory at the Kursk Bulge, on the same day Joseph Stalin signed an order to create Suvorov schools. They were going to be called Stalinist, but the leader changed the name and added, "According to the type of cadet corps."

For those children and teenagers who have not yet had time to commit any crimes, but lost their parents on the war fronts, the resolution of August 21, 1943, decided to " organize nine Suvorov military schools, such as the old cadet corps, 500 people each, a total of 4500 people with a training period of 7 years, with a closed boarding school for pupils...»

The People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR for two months, from October 1943 to November inclusive, was to form nine Suvorov military schools: Krasnodar (in the city of Maykop), Novocherkassk, Stalingrad (in the city of Astrakhan), Voronezh, Kharkiv (in the city of Chuguev), Kursk, Oryol (in the city of Yelets), Kalinin and Stavropol.

For the children of border guards, two Suvorov military schools were created - Tashkent and Kutaisi, and for the children of sailors - Tbilisi, Riga and Leningrad Nakhimov naval schools.

The decree stated that the Suvorov military schools "aim to prepare boys for military service in the officer rank and give them a general secondary education... The Suvorov military schools accept boys from the age of 10 with a training period of 7 years. In schools, organize junior and senior preparatory classes with a one-year period of study in each class. In the preparatory classes, children aged from 8 to 10 years can be accepted.»

The NCO of the USSR undertook to prepare the premises and provide the schools with everything necessary for the beginning of the educational process by September 1943. The IED school year was to begin on December 1, 1943.

The first Suvorovites were the children of servicemen, partisans and party workers who died during the war. It was a full board, upbringing, education, and military training.

The government immediately set a high bar. The first set included the grandchildren of Chapaev, the son of the pilot Gastello, young partisans and the sons of the regiment. They were raised to be officers of a new, or rather, forgotten, old training.

At that time, the word "cadet" evoked an association with the tsarist military schools, and the students were officially called Suvorovites, but when they were in black uniforms with red shoulder straps, they proudly walked down the street, the children shouted, " the cadet is wearing a stick."

Stalin ordered that the Suvorov people would not need anything, and personally supervised the increased food standards. Many of the guys, especially the "blockaders", were so hungry that they ate eight plates of soup at lunch.

The government did not spare any money, only the Stavropol School received more than 18 million rubles for the first expenses.

The contingent of IED students of the first set of 1943/44 consisted of at least 85% of the children of the fallen soldiers. These were boys who had experienced the horrors of war, survived the bombing and shelling, the hunger and cold of the war years, former street children and orphanages. There were children in front of whom the fascists shot their parents and relatives.

The sons of the regiments who took part in the fighting were also sent to the IED, for which many of them received orders and medals. Thus, Kostya Kravchuk, who was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Battle for saving two battle banners, was among the first to be admitted to the Kharkiv IED. Sergei Nikolaev was sent to the same school. He was then 12 years old. My parents were killed by the Nazis. While in a partisan detachment, Sergei mined the road and blew up an enemy car passing through it, destroying 25 Hitlerites. With the medal "For the defense of Stalingrad" came to the second class of the Kharkiv SVU Petya Sorokin. In this city, his parents were killed, he himself helped the defenders of Stalingrad as much as he could, and was wounded. Another defender of Stalingrad, Vanya Glukhov, the son of a senior lieutenant, entered the Novocherkassk IED. On his chest, next to the medal for the defense of this city, glittered the medal "For Military Merit". Eleven-year-old Kolya Mishchenko began studying at the Kalininsky SVU. His parents were shot by the Germans in 1941, and Kolya joined the Belarusian partisans, with whom he crossed the front line. He spent our reconnaissance group behind enemy lines, for which he received the medal "For Military Merit". With a government award, Volodya Khivzer also entered this school, who, fighting in a partisan detachment, went 13 times to scout behind enemy lines. For the first time, Borya Merkushev sat down at a desk in the junior preparatory class of the Kalininsky SVU. At the beginning of the war, he lived with his grandmother near Rzhev, and ended up in the occupation. My father died defending Leningrad, and my mother was killed in a bombing attack in the same city. Soon after the liberation of the village where the boy lived by our troops, his grandmother died. Borya was picked up and adopted by the soldiers of the 4th separate assault engineering and sapper brigade in 1942. So he went along the military roads with the sappers, until he was sent to the Suvorov school in November 1943. Reserve Colonel Boris Ivanovich Merkushev still remembers how on February 19, 1946, the head of the school, Major General Eremin, presented him with the medal "For the Victory over Germany"on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

By December 1, 1943, not all schools had reached the required number of students. The rest were sent during their studies from the active army, from partisan detachments, from destroyed towns and villages, from hospitals...

From all fronts, officers and sergeants with pedagogical education were recalled to work in schools, especially graduates of pre-revolutionary cadet corps were valued, but only a few remained. The surviving graduates of the Smolny Institute were found by a miracle, and the former "noble girls" began to teach future officers good manners.

Many boys, and they were from 8 to 11, did not even know the rules of hygiene, did not know how to use a handkerchief. They were amazed to see starched napkins in shiny rings, knives, forks, and china in the dining room. A three-course meal, coffee with milk and sugar, seemed unreal.

In the Suvorov schools, science was taught according to the standards of secondary schools. Military training was also there, as in all officer schools, but the education is different. Special attention was paid to the study of foreign languages, one day a week they spoke only in French, the duty officers made sure that no one spoke Russian even among themselves. Ballroom dancing was mandatory, here Suvorov students were taught dance steps and gallant manners.

The life of the Suvorov people went according to a strict schedule, rising at the bugle signal, physical exercises, morning review, training sessions and sports.

On June 24, 1945, at the Victory Parade, the first Suvorov soldiers, boys, the new elite of the Soviet Army, marched along the cobblestones of Red Square, striking a step.