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In the Tambov region, as well as throughout the country, from the first days of the war, many volunteers brought applications to military commissariats with a request to send them to the front, in total, 434 thousand people went to the front, that is, every fourth resident of the region. Of these, 250 thousand people, which is 58% of the total number of conscripts, died at the front.|
Many natives of the Tambov region were awarded high military awards. 396 fellow countrymen were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union during the war. 201 of them were born in the modern administrative borders of the region. For another 80 Heroes of the USSR, Tambov region became a second homeland. In total, over 100 thousand Tambov residents were awarded military medals and orders of the USSR during the war, and 50 became full holders of the Order of Glory.
Among the Heroes, it is impossible not to mention Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, who became the first female Hero of the Soviet Union and became one of the symbols of the fight against fascism.
By August 1941, 250 signalmen, over 700 nurses and 2,300 sandruzhinnits had been trained in the Tambov Region. With the adoption on September 17, 1941 by the State Defense Committee of the USSR of the resolution "On universal military training of citizens of the USSR", the country finally developed a system of training combat reserves for the front – Vsevobuch. In cities and districts, at enterprises, in institutions and collective farms, military training centers were equipped, where reservists were trained. Since October 1, 1941, the Vsevobuch system has been operating in the Tambov region. For 1941 – 1944. In the region, 7 queues of pre-conscripts were trained, mainly in 1924 – 1927, with a total number of 135,926 people. Since the spring of 1943, the training of military specialists in the women's units of Vsevobuch – shooters and signalmen-was launched. Girls between the ages of 18 and 26 were accepted into the women's units. During 1943-1944, three such queues with a total number of 2,689 people were prepared.
During the war, many units and formations of the Red Army were formed in the Tambov Region. Three rifle divisions were formed, which went to the defense of Moscow (323rd, 325th, 331st), 233rd tank brigade. In the autumn of 1942, the second Guards army was formed, headed by Lieutenant General Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky: it was sent to Stalingrad and played a major role in the liberation of the city from the Nazi invaders. This army went down in history as an army that did not suffer a single defeat.
A people's militia was also formed. In 1941, the battalions of the labor front began to be created, the residents of the region built fortifications in the immediate rear. All day long, despite the bombing, they dug trenches and anti-tank ditches.
When the front line came close to the Tambov region, it began to play an important military and economic role in the defense of the country. The products of industry and agriculture have become of great importance for the economy. Regional enterprises began to develop and produce various types of weapons, repair of military equipment. The urban population of working age was mobilized to work in production. Many workers of retirement age have returned to the enterprises. The collective farmers tirelessly provided the army with food. In villages and villages where there were almost no men left, both children and old people participated in the harvest.
With a 12-hour working day, Tambov residents worked for 15 hours. About 80% of the salary was given to the army. Every second pack of shag smoked by Soviet soldiers was produced at the Morshansky Tobacco factory. Every fifth Soviet soldier was dressed in a greatcoat made of cloth produced at the Arzhenskaya and Morshanskaya cloth factories. Workers of Tambov artels sewed tunics, cotton trousers, boots, felt boots, bags for cartridges. Forestry enterprises produced aviasani, ironers, and skis.
One of the first to establish the production of defense products (45-mm shell shells for tank and anti-tank guns).) Tambov Motor Repair Plant. Ammunition was also produced by factory No. 204 in Kotovsk, which in four years gave the army 90 thousand tons of gunpowder and 40 million charges. The needle factory evacuated to Tulinovka from Belarus has mastered the production of grenades.
The Revtrud plant increased the production of ammunition tenfold in the first six months. It also produced anti-aircraft machine guns, auto power plants, mortars, submachine guns, shells for Katyusha shells, grenades, fuses for mines, bottles with a combustible mixture, anti-tank hedgehogs.
From the shops of the Komsomolets plant, air starters and gas tankers for aircraft were sent to the front. In addition, they also mastered the production of support plates for mortars, cases for hand-held anti-personnel grenades, machine gun parts, mobile automobile oxygen stations, devices for obtaining alcohol from wood waste. The tank repair base evacuated from Lipetsk was also recreated. In the middle of the war, Komsomolets produced the first equipment in the country for the production of penicillin, which was urgently needed in hospitals.
The Tambov Car Repair Plant occupied one of the first places among the enterprises of railway transport for the production of ammunition. During the war years, it produced 2 million mines, also equipped sanitary and bath-and-laundry trains, produced snow plows, and special cars for installing anti-aircraft guns.
A real feat was accomplished by the railway workers. Due to the growing scale of transportation and the loss of part of the railway network, transportation through the Tambov region in 1941-1942 became extremely important. The Michurinsk — Kochetovka railway junction became the third most important in the country (after Moscow and Gorky). Through it were trains with soldiers, military cargo and food. Due to the constant work, the maximum increase in speed and the reduction of train intervals, the capacity of the railways was increased seven times.
The Tambov region sent 90 kg of gold, hundreds of kilograms of platinum and silver to the National Defense Fund. In the autumn of 1942, Tambov collective farmers took the initiative to raise funds for the creation of a tank column of the same name. Tambov residents collected 40 million rubles, and in December 1942, representatives of all 43 districts of the region solemnly handed over combat vehicles to tank soldiers. In total, 370 tanks with the inscriptions "Tambov Collective farmer"were handed over to the Red Army. In 1949, one of the T-34 tanks of this column was installed in Tambov as a symbol of patriotism, selflessness and heroism of the Soviet people.
Since the front line was located near the Tambov region, many hospitals were organized here, which were located in the premises of schools, hospitals, and sanatoriums. The Tambov region has become the largest hospital base in the country. On the territory of the region, 250 hospitals were organized, through which 610 thousand wounded people passed. This means that for every two civilians, including small children and the elderly, one wounded person was taken care of.
Thousands of natives of the Tambov region distinguished themselves on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War
One of the first to be awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was fighter pilot Junior Lieutenant Pyotr Kharitonov, a native of the village of Knyazhevo, Morshansky district. On the sixth day of the war, he rammed a German plane near Leningrad. Machine gunner Afanasy Ermakov became famous during the defense of Stalingrad. Leningrad was heroically defended by the sniper Vladimir Pchelintsev, who during the war was one of the initiators of the sniper movement. Alexander Avdeev directed his burning plane at an enemy tank column. Captain Viktor Streltsov destroyed dozens of enemy planes and ships.
In the autumn of 1943, in the battle for the city of Rudnya, tank captain Georgy Ponomarev fought until his last breath in a burning car. At the turning point of the battle, Junior Sergeant Nikolai Anisimov ensured a successful outcome of the battle, calling the fire on himself. Private Mikhail Polyakov destroyed a Fascist tank by throwing himself under it with a bunch of grenades.
Hundreds of Tambov residents fought in partisan detachments in the occupied territory. Hero of the Soviet Union Nikolai Frolov derailed 14 enemy trains. Natives of the Tambov Region Georgy Popov, Alexey Polin, Leonid Rytikov, Peter Tarasov, Yakov Sinev, Nikolai Shapkin repeated the feat of Alexander Matrosov, who closed the enemy embrasure.ure.