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Tyumenskaya oblast


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The formation of evacuation hospitals began to take place in Tyumen on June 25, 1941 – already on the third day after the start of the war. Initially, only three hospitals were organized in the city – Nos. 1498, 1499, 1500, each of which housed 200 beds.

The sorting hospital was located in the building of the modern University of Architecture and Civil Engineering.

In August 1941, after the arrival of the first wounded soldiers in Tyumen, two more hospitals were organized in the city – surgical and therapeutic No. 2475, located in the 21st school on the street.Khokhryakov, and No. 3518, which was placed outside the city – in a rest house named after him.Olovyannikova.

In October–December 1941, with the approach of the fighting to Moscow, the number of wounded increased dramatically. In this regard, several more hospitals were opened in Tyumen. Each of them specialized in the nature of wounds: therapeutic, surgical, traumatological, neuropsychiatric, infectious and others.

In total, during the war years, 11 hospitals with 6 thousand beds were located on the territory of Tyumen, which occupied 26 city buildings. On many houses of old Tyumen and now you can see commemorative plaques indicating that the hospital N. was located here in 1941-1945.

DECLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS: According to the Red Cross, the health authorities have organized 26 hospitals (13 – Ural and 13 – Siberian military districts). Trains with patients arrived from Kharkov, Chernihiv, Kuban and other places. More than 60 doctors worked in Tyumen infirmaries. The wounded, who were injured, were taught shoemaking, the profession of an accountant, so that people could earn a living, and not be a burden.

More than sixty doctors, hundreds of paramedics and nurses worked in Tyumen hospitals. There were a lot of real professionals among them. For example, Pavel Ivanovich Sazonov was reputed to be a virtuoso surgeon. More than 5,000 operations during the war years were carried out under his leadership. Almost half of them are his personal ones.

Comprehensive public assistance to health authorities, high patriotism, enthusiasm and great efficiency of all medical personnel largely contributed to the fact that 72.3 percent of the wounded and 90 percent of the sick soldiers returned to combat formation, continued the fight against the Nazi invaders.

Since 1943, hospitals began to gradually curtail their work and relocate closer to the front line, which gradually moved to the west. By the end of 1944, the last wounded and hospitals left the city.



Already in the first year of the Great Patriotic War in Tyumen, Ishim, Yalutorovsk, Zavodoukovsk, Golyshmanovo, it was planned to deploy about 30 hospitals with 10 thousand beds for wounded patients. The wounded — that's what the medical workers called the fighters brought from the front to Siberia for treatment.

There is an amazing song in its emotional impact about a nurse who was "whirled by a frontline blizzard" from the school prom. No matter how many times I listened to her, but in words, "And the soldier who was lying without legs said, "You and I, sister, will dance again," I can't hold back tears. From the inside, from the heart, comes the awareness of the degree of soldier's courage, willpower, endurance. And the degree of mercy, patience, faith, hope that people in white coats showed towards the wounded.

Another problem becomes obvious, over the solution of which the head of the Tyumen City Health Department, Maria Evgenievna Popova, had to break her head: where to get the equipment necessary for equipping evacuation hospitals in the shortest possible time? The conditions of the task became much more complicated with the opening in Tyumen (already in August 1941) of the e/g "second queues" - No. 2475 and No. 3318.

Tyumen doctors: everything for the front!

Evacuation hospitals - islands of salvation

In the first days of the war, hundreds of medical workers went to the front: doctors, paramedics, pharmacists, nurses and orderlies. In September 1941, the 368th Red Banner Pecheneg Rifle Division was formed in Tyumen. It included the 461st separate medical battalion.

Victory over the enemy was ensured not only on the battlefields, but also in the rear. A large number of industrial enterprises, educational institutions, orphanages, hospitals were evacuated to the Tyumen region. All were sheltered by the Tyumen land, fed and warmed.

In the first months of the war, 23 evacuation hospitals were formed in Tyumen, Ishim, Yalutorovsk and Zavodoukovsk, which were provided with the best buildings. To work in them, qualified specialists were attracted, who provided medical assistance to 70 thousand soldiers.

Preparations for the reception of the wounded were proceeding at a rapid pace. The local population willingly helped the hospital staff: they put the premises in order, brought flowers and paintings from the house, arranged furniture.

Hospitals 1498, 1500, 2475 were first deployed in Tyumen. By the autumn of 1941, evacuation hospitals from Kharkov, Chernigov, and Kuban began to arrive. But not all rooms were found, so some of them were sent further East. Doctors, remaining in the system of the People's Commissariat of Health, were considered mobilized to work in the evacuation hospital and followed him during relocation. From the evacuation hospital, the soldiers returned to the troops or, in case of unfitness to continue service, were demobilized.

In total, 11 hospitals with 6 thousand beds in 26 buildings were deployed in Tyumen during the war years. Each of the hospitals specialized in the nature of injuries: therapeutic, surgical, traumatological, neuropsychiatric, infectious and others. They employed more than sixty doctors, hundreds of paramedics and nurses.

Return to combat formation

The work of hospital staff had its difficulties: there was not enough equipment, medicines, food; there was also a problem of sanitary transport. As a rule, the buildings were poorly adapted for the treatment of the wounded. And when fully loaded, such a re-compaction was created that it was necessary to fill canteens, red corners, clubs, corridors with bunks. Medical personnel had to prepare firewood, carry water, wash floors, and take care of the wounded. It is worth adding that the recovering fighters, having seen all the hardships of the medical staff, organized shifts. During such "occupational therapy" they chopped firewood, peeled vegetables, cleaned the yard.

Hospitals were provided with soft equipment for 2.5-3 shifts. There were not enough bandages, soap, kerosene, fodder. Due to the lack of writing paper, medical records were often kept on scraps of paper bags, newspapers, pages of books and magazines, and often with a solution of potassium permanganate due to the lack of chemical ink.

Party, Soviet, trade union and public organizations provided comprehensive assistance to hospitals. Tyumen residents donated milk, meat, fish, cereals, potatoes and other products to improve the diet of the wounded for the speedy recovery of their strength.

Workshops were created at hospitals to teach disabled people new professions. Thus, courses of accountants, watchmakers and shoemakers were organized at the 1500 hospital.

Comprehensive public assistance to health authorities, high patriotism, enthusiasm and great efficiency of all medical personnel largely contributed to the fact that 72.3 percent of the wounded and 90 percent of the sick soldiers returned to combat formation, continued the fight against the Nazi invaders.

Withstood the test of war

The best doctors worked in Tyumen hospitals: Nikolay Sushkov, Pavel Sazonov, Vera Utrobina, Mikhail Panasyuchenko and many others.

Nikolai Sushkov had to operate not only in hospital 1500, but also in others. One day a train arrived with the wounded, among them was a 28-year-old soldier who had to have a fragment removed from the carotid artery. Nikolai Vasilyevich performed this operation. The fighter survived and after recovery he was sent to the unit. When Professor Fersman arrived from Novosibirsk, he said that out of thousands of patients who have undergone such an operation, only one remains alive. For selfless work during the war, Nikolai Sushkov was awarded the Order of the Red Star.

Pavel Sazonov showed medical initiative, applying his own modifications of Pirogov's bone plastic surgery in the surgical treatment of wounded in the foot. He also successfully operated on arterial aneurysms, removed foreign bodies from the skull and chest cavity.

During the difficult war years, medical workers of the Tyumen region successfully coped with the tasks assigned to them: they carried out preventive measures to prevent the occurrence and development of epidemics, treated wounded and sick soldiers in hospitals.

Regardless of where the medical workers were, each of them stood the test of the war with honor. Like everyone else, they worked under the motto: "Everything for the front, everything for victory" and honestly fulfilled their duty to the Fatherland.

Lanchuk, Olga. Tyumen doctors: everything for the front! [Text] / O. Lanchuk // Tyumen region today. - 2012. - May 11. - p. 13.