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Gorod-geroy Smolensk.

Smolenskaya oblast

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The Great Patriotic War became the hardest test for the Smolensk region. Already on June 24, 1941, German aircraft bombed the Smolensk railway junction. On the night of June 28-29, the entire city was subjected to a massive air attack, and on July 13, the troops of Army Group Center entered the region. Starting from July 15, stubborn battles for Smolensk went on for two weeks. The Nazis managed to capture the southern part of the city, but failed to break through the Dnieper. On July 29, the troops of the 16th and 20th armies were forced to begin a retreat from the city along the Old Smolensk road towards Kardymov to the Soloviev crossing across the Dnieper. The remnants of the troops, conducting rearguard battles, left Smolensk on July 30.

But the famous battle of Smolensk continued until mid-October 1941. For two weeks there were heavy battles at the Solovyov ferry. Here the Nazi troops were forced to go on the defensive. In fierce battles near Yelnya, the enemy lost more than 45 thousand soldiers and officers, a lot of military equipment. The 10th tank, 17th motorized and 15th infantry divisions of the enemy were utterly defeated. On September 5, after 25 days of stubborn fighting, units of the 24th Army, having defeated a strong German grouping, captured Yelnya. The liquidation of the Yelninsky ledge meant the final disruption of Hitler's plan for a lightning offensive against Moscow.

For steadfastness in the defense, courage and courage in the offensive near Yelnya, four rifle divisions - 100, 127, 153 and 161 on September 18, 1941 were the first in the Red Army to receive the name "Guards". The victory near Yelnya showed the whole world that our army is capable of not only stubbornly defending itself, but also successfully carrying out major offensive operations. The enemy was also defeated in the area of Dukhovshina.

However, the forces were unequal. Having concentrated 75 divisions in the Moscow direction, on September 30, 1941, the Nazis launched a new offensive. The operation was codenamed "Typhoon". The enemy managed to break through the defenses and surround a large group of Soviet troops in the Vyazma region. Here, in the first half of October 1941, four armies (19, 20, 24 and 32) fell into the "cauldron". Tens of thousands of Soviet soldiers and commanders fell as nameless heroes near Vyazma. Without breaking through the dense ring of encirclement, the survivors ended up in Nazi captivity. But the sacrifices made were not in vain. For almost two weeks, significant forces of Army Group Center were detained near Vyazma. The most powerful fascist group was exhausted. An attempt to immediately take over Moscow failed.

Fierce fighting continued in the region for almost three months. The first experience of the war was hard. In the battle of Smolensk, the troops of four fronts - Western, Reserve, Bryansk and Central - lost about half a million people. But about 250 thousand soldiers and officers of the German army remained lying in Smolensk land.

The partisan movement was widely deployed in the occupied Smolensk region. The organization of partisan detachments began in July 1941. By the end of the month, 54 partisan detachments with a total number of 1160 fighters were formed in the region; in January 1942, organized military operations were carried out by 67 partisan detachments, numbering almost 17 thousand people. In just two and a half years of the Great Patriotic War, about 120 partisan detachments and formations fought in the Smolensk region, in which there were over 60 thousand fighters. It was a real people's war to defend the freedom and independence of their homeland.

Three partisan territories were formed on the territory of the region. The largest one - with an area of about 10 thousand square kilometers - was located in the southeast of the region, it was called Dorogobuzhsky. It included Dorogobuzhsky and Glinkovsky, most of the Vskhodsky, Elninsky, Znamensky, Semlevsky districts, partly the territory of Izdeshkovsky, Kardymovsky, Pochinkovsky, Yartsevsky, Spas-Demensky and Safonovsky districts. Another partisan region - Vadinsky - united the territories of six districts: Baturinsky, Kholm-Zhirkovsky, partially Yartsevsky, Safonovsky, Dukhovshchinsky and Izdeshkovsky. The third was the Northwestern Territory - Slobodskoy, Demidovsky, Kasplyansky, Prechistensky, Ponizovsky, partially Dukhovshchinsky and Rudnyansky districts. In the liberated areas, the entire Soviet power structure was restored. The enemy had no place here.

The beginning of the expulsion of the Nazi troops from Smolensk was laid during the Battle of Moscow in the winter of 1942. Then some eastern districts of the region were liberated. As a result of fierce battles with the enemy, Vyazma was liberated in mid-March 1943. The Nazis were expelled from the main territory of the Smolensk region during the offensive operation of 1943. In late August - early September, Yelnya and Dorogobuzh were liberated, then Yartsevo, Dukhovshchina, Demidov, Velizh. September 25 - Smolensk and Roslavl. Developing the offensive, the Soviet troops liberate the district centers - Khislavichi and Shumyachi and enter the territory of Belarus. On September 29, the battles for Rudnya ended. Monastyrshchina, Krasny, Yershichi, Ponizovye were liberated. Smolensk offensive operation, in the course of