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Reserve Capital In the autumn of 1941, the rear city of Kuibyshev became the center of the country's political life In the autumn of 1941, the German-Fascist troops went on the offensive against the Soviet capital, which was declared under a state of siege on October 16 At the same time, by the decision of the State Defense Committee (GKO), the rear city of Kuibyshev was designated the reserve capital of the USSR. The property and personnel of foreign embassies that had their residences in Moscow began to be urgently exported here. Almost simultaneously, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, a number of People's Commissariats and glavkovs, as well as many defense enterprises, also moved to us.
Today, most of us only know from school textbooks what happened in our city that disturbing autumn. At that time, Kuibyshev, in comparison with Moscow or Leningrad, could well be called a patriarchal outback. And so imagine the shock that ordinary citizens experienced when, quite unexpectedly, high-ranking leaders from the capital, led by the "All-Union headman" M. I. Kalinin, suddenly began to settle in the neighboring blocks , famous Moscow artists, writers and composers, factory specialists, but most importantly-hundreds of foreigners, who at that time were very rare for a provincial city. At the same time, it should be emphasized that in the entire history of our country, only three of its cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg and Samara) at different times had the status of the capital of the Russian state, on the territory of which the residences of foreign embassies were located. This large relocation was carried out as part of the implementation of a top - secret strategic plan developed in advance by the General Staff for a special period, that is, in case of any emergency situation-in particular, in case of an attack on our country by an external enemy. According to this plan, it was Kuibyshev, located almost on the border of Europe and Asia, which at that time was thousands of kilometers away from any border, and moreover was located at the intersection of the largest transport arteries, that was chosen by the government of the USSR as the reserve capital of the state.
Secrets of the "Stalin's Bunker" But back to the disturbing autumn of 1941. In those days, only a few people who were privy to the highest state secrets of the country knew that after the introduction of the state of siege in Moscow on October 16, 1941, by the decision of the State Defense Committee of the USSR, emergency preparations began for the placement of the first persons of the state, including the Supreme Commander-in-Chief I. V. Stalin, in the reserve capital. A top secret resolution of the State Defense Committee No. 945 of November 22, 1941 was adopted, which stated the following: "Build command posts – bomb shelters in the cities of Yaroslavl, Gorky, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Kuibyshev, Saratov, and Stalingrad." But of all the cities named in the decree of the State Defense Committee of the USSR, where underground shelters were supposed to appear, only one was actually built - in Kuibyshev. It was Kuibyshev that at that time already had the status of the reserve capital of the USSR, and therefore the local special object was considered the first among all those listed above. The best people came here to work